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Home > Industry Information > Design and Thinking of Stadium Lighting System in Gymnasium

Design and Thinking of Stadium Lighting System in Gymnasium

2021-04-25

In recent years, with the improvement of people’s living standards and the country’s strong support for the sports industry, a number of sports facilities with modern standards have been newly built and reconstructed.

In general, gymnasiums are general venues for indoor sports competitions. For a venue of a modern gymnasium, not only are all kinds of sports equipment perfect and perfect, but they also require suitable and uniform illumination, ideal light color, three-dimensionality, and no glare. In addition to guaranteeing a good visual effect for the audience, it must also ensure that the referees, the athletes, and the lighting requirements required for the specific event. This puts forward specific requirements for the design of stadium lighting systems.

体育场地照明设计

First, the main lighting technology indicators:

1.1 Illumination standards:

Illumination illumination of sports stadiums in China specifies different practice and competition standards for different sports events. It should be noted that stadiums at or above the provincial or municipal level should consider the requirements for color television broadcasts, and their site illumination should also be designed in accordance with the standard value of the illumination of television broadcasting for sports venues. In addition to the specific requirements of the illuminance value, the illuminance uniformity index should also be considered. For example, the ratio between the minimum and maximum illuminance of the site should not be less than 0.5. There is a lot of information on the introduction of such standards, such as "Civil Building Electrical Design Code" (JGJ/T16-92). I will not repeat them here.

In addition, sports venues and auditoriums are crowded places. In accordance with the requirements of the “Civil Building Electrical Design Code” and “Building Design Fire Protection Code” (GBJ16-87) and other specifications, fire accident lighting should be set, and its illumination value is usually not low. 10% of the standard value of lighting illumination in sports venues.

1.2 The correlated color temperature of the light source and the general color rendering index:

The lighting design of sports venues is not only related to the illumination, but also related to the color temperature and color rendering of the lighting source. The relationship between the color temperature of the light source and the color rendering index can be avoided to avoid psychological imbalance and disharmony. According to China's relevant regulations, different sports venues have different requirements for the color temperature and color rendering of lighting sources, which are summarized in Table 1:

Table 1: Color Table Category of Light Source

Color table category

Color table

Correlated color temperature (K)

Example of using places

I

warm

Small exercise place, sports building public place

II

intermediate

3300~5300

Indoor competition hall, practice place

III

cold

>5300

Outdoor competition hall, contact place

The color temperature and color rendering index of the light source are important parameters for selecting lamps and lanterns. For new stadiums, most of them are required to meet the requirements for color television broadcasting. Therefore, the correlated color temperature of the light source usually takes 3300~5300K; the general color rendering index takes 80~90 for design. This point of view, in the completed Fujian Province Gymnasium; Fujian Province swimming, diving hall and Wuyishan City Stadium, the actual use of point of view, can well meet the competition and color TV broadcast requirements.

In addition to these indicators, the design must be based on the requirements of the sports competition project, project investment, and lighting environment, so as to be economical, reasonable, and able to meet the requirements for use.

Second, the illumination calculation:

The requirements for physical education are more stringent, so site illumination must be calculated more accurately. However, due to the large number of sports events and requirements, the number of lighting devices used is also large, which brings many complicated factors to lighting design. Therefore, it is particularly important to adopt different calculation methods at different design stages.

2.1 Utilization coefficient method:

The utilization coefficient method is usually used in the scheme and preliminary design stage, and the coefficient of use method is suitable for calculation of illuminance with less strict control requirements. The basic formula for calculating the average illuminance on the plane of the illuminated site using the coefficient of utilization method is as follows:

利用系数法

In the formula:

Eav ─ average illumination (lx) on the illuminated surface;

φ ─ light flux of the light source in the lamp (lm);

N─Number of required lamps;

A─The area of ​​the venue;

K-maintenance factor;

U-utility factor

The above formula can be used to estimate the number of lamps needed according to the average illuminance of the site requirements. However, the arrangement of lamps can only be based on experience, so the uniformity of site illumination cannot be guaranteed.

2.2 point by point method:

The point-by-point method is to add the illuminance generated by each luminaire to the calculation point, which is the total illuminance at that point. The method is not limited by whether the lamps are arranged evenly or whether the lamps are installed with equal height. The calculation accuracy is relatively accurate, so it is often used in the construction drawing design. The basic formula for calculating the illuminance on the plane of the illuminated site by the point-by-point method is as follows:

逐点法计算公式

In the formula:

Eh - the horizontal illumination of a point (lx);

Iθ─ is the luminous intensity (cd) of the direction of illumination of the light source;

H - the height of the light source from the illuminated surface (m);

Θ─ is the angle between the light source and the illuminated point and the plumb line.

Ex ─ vertical illuminance (x) for a point x;

Ey is the vertical illuminance (lx) at a point in the y direction;

H─ is the height of the light source from the illuminated surface (m);

Φ─ is the angle between the projection of the light source and the illuminated point on the horizontal plane and the x-axis.

Although point-by-point calculations are accurate, calculations are often cumbersome and usually implemented using computer programming. Using the characteristics of fast computing speed of the microcomputer, the illuminance generated by each luminaire at each calculation point can be calculated and accumulated again and again, ie, the illuminance values ​​at that point can be obtained. According to this principle, by adjusting the installation position and incident angle of each luminaire, the calculated illuminance of each coordinate point that ultimately meets the requirements of the game can be easily obtained, and then the illuminance distribution map and the illuminance curve diagram of the competition are drawn.

In the absence of computer computing software, if there are a large number of lamps and the distribution of the lamps is symmetrical with respect to the vertical axis of the lamps, the lamp type and the light source used in the entire site are exactly the same, and the simplified table calculation method can be used for calculation. This method is based on a point-by-point calculation method and is simplified in a tabular form, so the calculation is more accurate and suitable for manual calculations (computing formulas and simplified forms are omitted).

Third, lighting design program:

3.1 Lighting Mode:

The lighting methods for indoor competition venues mainly include direct lighting and indirect lighting, and their characteristics are summarized in Table 3 according to relevant information.

the way
Lighting installation
Plane
Features
Applicable place
straight
Pick up
Photo
Bright
Gypsophila
⊙⊙⊙⊙⊙
⊙⊙⊙⊙⊙
⊙⊙⊙⊙⊙
Low vertical illuminance, low glare, uniform illuminance, and low equipment costs.
General gymnasium, boxing, gymnastics, skill, wrestling, training hall
Light Bridge
↓↓↓↓↓
↑↑↑↑↑
When used for a certain direction of the game, the glare is small, the vertical illuminance is high, and the stereoscopic effect is strong.
Balls, tricks, gymnastics, swimming, water polo
mixing
↓↓↓↓↓
⊙⊙⊙⊙⊙
↑↑↑↑↑
Uniform illumination, low glare, high vertical illuminance, and low equipment costs.
General gym, gymnastics, skills, boxing, wrestling
between
Pick up
Photo
Bright
Oblique sideways
↑↑↑↑↑
↓↓↓↓↓
The light is soft and the glare is small, but it is not economical and the equipment costs are very high.
Balls, tricks, gymnastics, swimming, water polo
Direct upward illumination
◎◎◎◎◎
◎◎◎◎◎
◎◎◎◎◎
The lighting effect is good, the glare is small, but it is not economical and the equipment cost is very high.
Balls, tricks, gymnastics, swimming, water polo

Table 3: Lighting Comparison Table

For general gymnasiums, we usually use direct-lit lamp bridges or hybrid lighting fixtures. Because of the versatility required for performances such as theatrical performances, comprehensive gymnasiums often install horse trails in roofing steel racks. This facilitates the installation, commissioning, and overhauling of lamp bridges or hybrid lighting fixtures. Direct lighting is also used. One-time investment is small, and the normal operation cost is also low, but this cloth lamp scheme should pay attention to the inhibition of glare.

3.2 Inhibition of Glare:

The suppression of glare plays an important role in the athlete's performance, the referee's assessment and the audience's appreciation of the game. How to reduce the glare is the key to the success of the lighting system design. In addition to improving the uniformity of illuminance (including the uniformity of the illuminance of the venue and the audience), the glare suppression measures should mainly be taken in the installation and selection of luminaires as follows:

a. The built-in lighting has built-in anti-glare baffles or additional partitions to increase the shading angle of the lamps and reduce the generation of glare.

b. Control the projection direction of the luminaire so that the projection direction of the luminaire is approximately 45° with the projection of the main movement direction of the site (referred to as the 45° projection beam method). This method not only has high luminous flux utilization rate, but also can effectively control glare and can easily meet the requirements for color television broadcasting.

c. Control the projection angle of the luminaire so that the elevation angle of the luminaire installed at the edge of the opposite site in this direction is more than 30° to reduce the occurrence of direct glare.

3.3 The choice of lamps:

The choice of lamps and lanterns mainly considers the high luminous efficacy of the lamps, the color rendering requirements, the suitable color temperature, and the long service life. The common lighting fixtures in the stadium are compared with the following table:

Light source type

Power Range (W)

Luminous efficiency (Lm/W)

Color temperature (K)

Color Rendering Index (Ra)

Average life (h)

Startup time (min)

At startup time (min)

Incandescent

100~1000

6.5~19

2400~2950

95~99

1,000

Instantaneous

Instantaneous

High pressure mercury lamp

100~1000

30~50

2400~2950

30-40

2500~5000

4~8

5~10

Halogen lamp

500~2000

19~21

2970~3050

95~99

1500

Instantaneous

Instantaneous

HPS

100~400

70~130

2100

20~25

10000

4~8

10~15

Metal Halide Lamp

100~2000

70~100

6000

65~100

10000

4~8

10~15

Table 4: Comparison table of commonly used lighting fixtures

Compared with high-pressure sodium lamps, halogen lamps, high-pressure mercury lamps, metal halide lamps, and other lighting technical indicators, we usually use metal halide lamps as the light source for stadium lighting. Its characteristics are: good color rendering, moderate color temperature, and high luminous efficiency. long life.

Fire accident lighting for venues and auditoriums should use light fixtures that can be activated instantaneously. Halogen lamps are usually selected.

In addition, the selection of lamps should also consider the lighting environment, such as indoor swimming pool lighting selection

The following factors should be considered:

a. Luminaires are required to have corrosion resistance, good airtightness, and IP55 or higher protection level.

b. The use of reinforced safety glass and glass protective nets to prevent glass fragments from falling into the bottom of the pool is difficult to remove.

Fourth, lighting control system and power supply

4.1 Lighting Control System:

In the past, lighting control systems used common control methods for relays and contactors. In this way, the wiring was complicated, and the lighting scheme was single and inconvenient to operate, which could not meet the requirements for flexible and variable lighting control in a multi-purpose stadium. Due to the use of gas discharge lamps in stadium lighting fixtures, and the large starting surge currents, the control system cannot automatically adjust the sequence of successive opening and closing of the lighting groups, so it is difficult to avoid the impact of large currents, and it is easy to cause damage to the lamps.

With the development of science and technology, the lighting control system adopts computer automatic control technology, and the intelligent lighting control system emerges. It mainly consists of: main control module, dimming module (optional), intelligent management module, programmable controller and system. Monitor the composition. The system is based on computer technology and communication technology, and uses distributed control as the system structure. It adopts an integrated and coordinated control method. Under the premise of ensuring the lighting quality of the site, the lighting fixtures and their feeder circuits are fully monitored and the stadium lighting is implemented. The control operation becomes safer, simpler, and more reliable to meet the lighting requirements of different types of sports competitions, while also considering the connection interface with the BAS system. Such as LCS-9600/PLUS intelligent lighting control system (the schematic block diagram of a), the system also has the following characteristics:

a. Simulate and display the lighting status of the entire site lighting on a computer color monitor.

b. The operator of the lighting control room can command the (remote) system security option to turn on or off the respective lighting group on the site through the "control button" on the display.

b. The system is equipped with a variety of lighting options. The operator can also edit, modify, and save the lighting solution according to different sports competition requirements. The lighting solution can be flexible.

d. The system has the function of time recording and life automatic statistics.

e. The system is provided with two kinds of automatic and manual control methods. In the emergency situation, the operator can turn on or off the site lighting fixtures by operating the manual control buttons in the control cabinet.

LCS-9600/PLUS智能化照明控制系统原理框图

Figure 1: Block diagram of LCS-9600/PLUS intelligent lighting control system

4.2 Power supply for lighting control system:

According to the "Civil Building Electrical Design Code" requirements, lighting power supply for stadiums in provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and above is designed in accordance with Class I load. Therefore, it is usually from the low voltage distribution room to lead two power sources to the lighting control room. The two power supplies are used for mutual backup. Each of them usually has about half of the load, and the power distribution is evenly distributed so that any one of the power supplies can be powered off. The gas discharge lamp 10~ Within 15 minutes of re-starting time, it can still meet the general competition. For small gymnasiums and training halls, a one-use-one power supply scheme can also be used. This scheme is simple in wiring and reliable in operation.

The distribution circuit led from the light control cabinet to the lamp usually has 3 to 6 turns of a loop. Considering the strobe effect of the gas discharge lamp, the neighboring lamp is powered by different phases, that is, the lamp is evenly connected to the three-phase alternating current.

Because of the large power of fire accident lighting fixtures, they generally do not use their own batteries as their backup power source. They are usually powered by two fire-fighting power supplies in the light control room.

V. Project Example:

5.1 Project Overview

The swimming and diving hall of Fujian Province is located in the northwest corner of the sports center. It is a building consisting of two semi-circular shells with a plane diameter of 76 meters and a spherical radius ranging from two floors above the ground to one floor below. The ground floor is equipped with a 10-lane swimming competition pool (50X25m) and a diving pool (20X25m) each meeting the requirements of international competitions, as well as auxiliary rooms such as halls, athlete lounges, showers, etc.; the second floor is a grandstand, lounge, and technology. Use the room; basement equipment room and fitness room. The total construction area is approximately 14,000 square meters, the building height is 26.8 meters, and the audience is 1,560 people.

5.1 Design Plan

The design illumination of swimming pools and diving pools shall be designed to meet the requirements for the domestic television transmission of illumination, that is, the average vertical illuminance at 1.0 meters above the water surface is greater than 1000 Lx, the color temperature of the lamps and lanterns shall be 4,500 K, and the color rendering index shall be 85; the lamps and lanterns shall be required to be antiseptic, moisture-proof and have a protection level IP55 or above; emergency lighting uses instant-activated trigger (hot start), usually for site lighting (consultation with the fire department); 115 metal halide lamps installed in the stadium, including 97 sets of 1KW lamps, 0.4KW lamps 18 sets (excluding auditorium lighting fixtures); lighting control system uses LCS-9600/PLUS (32 channels) intelligent lighting control system, in which swimming pool lighting is controlled by 16 channels, diving pool lighting is controlled by 10 channels, auditorium lighting Divided into 4-way control, underwater lighting is divided into 2-way control. In February 2000, after the lighting system of the site was installed and tested, the indicators such as illumination and uniformity of the test site met the specifications. The museum held a national synchronized swimming competition in March 2000.

Six, several issues discussed:

6.1 Lighting of the grid inside the stadium

Most of the new gymnasiums nowadays use bare indoor racks. When we study the lighting of the design venues, we often focus on the lighting effects of the competition venues, and neglect the lighting of the interior grids. In fact, some lighting fixtures are installed on the carriageway to reinforce the grids. The lighting can reduce the contrast between the luminaire and the roof of the horse and reduce the glare, and at the same time, it can also show the architectural beauty. Therefore, I believe that the lighting of the grid should be set.

6.2 Pay attention to the electrical accessories box

The accessory box of a gas discharge lamp refers to the control circuit and accessories of the lamp, usually installed near the lamp. Gas discharge lamps used in sports lighting often have low power factor, and the distribution line is led by the light control room. In order to reduce the loss, the author believes that single lamp compensation measures should be adopted so that the single lamp power factor can reach 0.85 or more.

On the other hand, since the distribution circuit of the lamp is a multi-turn circuit, it is important to install a single lamp in the accessory box for the convenience of debugging and maintenance.

6.3 About Fire Accident Lighting

Setting fire accident lighting in the stadium is related to people's life and property safety, but the use rate of the lighting fixture is very low. Therefore, the author thinks that it can be considered in conjunction with the lighting of the venue. In the emergency state, the “thermal trigger” device is used to ignite the fire. Accident lighting, this can not only reduce the cost, but also in the normal monitoring of the fire accident lighting fault status, timely maintenance. (The use of swimming and diving halls needs further verification)

With the development of science and technology and the advancement of society, new technologies, new equipment, and new technologies will continue to emerge. How to combine the characteristics of a comprehensive stadium and design a good site lighting system so that it not only has distinctive characteristics of the times, but also can do To economical, practical, safe and energy-saving is the goal pursued by each of our electrical designers. To this end, we must continue to learn and listen to opinions and suggestions from all sides so that our engineering design can be continuously improved and improved.


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